Nitration of Toluene-Mechanism and Examples

Written by Adeel Abbas The introduction of a nitro group into toluene is called nitration of toluene. Nitro group acts as a electrophile. Explanation: Toluene reacts around 25 times more quickly than benzene in the nitration reaction. In order to prevent the substitution of more than one nitro group, a lower temperature would be used … Read more

Introduction to Benzene: preparation, properties, reactivity and uses

Written by Adeel Abbas Discovery of benzene The discovery of benzene is generally attributed to the German chemist Friedrich August Kekulé. In the 1850s and 1860s, Kekulé proposed that the carbon atoms in benzene were arranged in a ring, with alternating double bonds. He also proposed that these double bonds were delocalized, meaning that the … Read more

Halogenation of Benzene-Activation and Mechanism

Written by Adeel Abbas The introduction of a halogen into benzene is called the halogenation of benzene. Definition of halogenation of benzene Halogenation is an example of electrophilic aromatic substitution. In electrophilic aromatic substitutions, benzene is attacked by an electrophile which results in the substitution of hydrogen. Halogens are not sufficiently electrophilic to react with … Read more

Friedel-Craft acylation-Mechanism, Examples

What is Friedel-Craft acylation? Addition of acyl group into Benzene ring is known as Friedel-Crafts acylation. Usually, an acid chloride (R-(C=O)-Cl) and a Lewis acid catalyst like AlCl3 are used to do this. A ketone is created from the aromatic ring in a Friedel-Crafts acylation process. Below is an illustration of how benzene and an … Read more

Friedel-Craft Alkylation-Definition, Mechanism, Examples

Written by Adeel Abbas The introduction of alkyl group (R) into benzene is called Friedel-Craft Alkylation. Friedel crafts alkylation is important reaction of benzene. Overall Reaction For Friedel Crafts Alkylation Explanation The term Friedel-Craft alkylation describes the substitution of an alkyl group for an aromatic proton. This is accomplished by using a carbocation to conduct … Read more

Sulfonation Of Benzene-Definition, Mechanism And Solved Examples

Written by Adeel Abbas What is sulfonation? The addition of sulfur trioxide (SO3) into benzene is called sulfonation of benzene. Equation Explanation Sulfonation of benzene is an example of electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions just like nitration. Sulfonation of benzene takes place when benzene reacts with sulfur trioxide (SO3). In this reaction sulfuric acid acts as … Read more

Nitration of Benzene- introduction, mechanism and solved examples

What is nitration of benzene? The addition of nitro (NO2) group into benzene is called nitration of benzene. Equation Explanation Nitration of benzene is an example of electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. Benzene reacts with concentrated nitric acid in the presence of sulfuric acid to give nitrobenzene. In this reaction sulfuric acid acts as a catalyst. … Read more

What is artificial sweetener? Working and uses

Written by Adeel Abbas An artificial sweetener, or sweetening agent, is a food additive that provides a sweet taste to foods and drinks without the accompanying calories of natural sugar. Because they are many times sweeter than regular sugar, artificial sweeteners can be used in smaller quantities to provide the same level of sweetness. This makes … Read more

What are fossil fuels?

Written by Adeel Abbas What are fossil fuels? Fossil fuels can be defined as organic matter, obtained from decaying organisms under high temperature and pressure for a long period of time, and finally their decay after an extensive time span. Fossil Fuels are the natural resources that take millions of years to form and cannot … Read more

Organic Chemistry: Scope and Application

LEARNING OBJECTIVES In this article, the author has explained What is organic chemistry and different types of organic reactions. This blog post also discusses the scope and applications of the organic chemistry in daily life. What is organic chemistry? Organic chemistry is a branch of organic chemistry that deals with organic compounds. Organic molecules, in turn, are … Read more