Organic Chemistry: Scope and Application

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In this article, the author has explained What is organic chemistry and different types of organic reactions. This blog post also discusses the scope and applications of the organic chemistry in daily life.


What is organic chemistry?

Organic chemistry is a branch of organic chemistry that deals with organic compounds.

Organic molecules, in turn, are made up of atoms which consist of carbon and hydrogen. This discipline addresses organic reactions and the synthesis or analysis of organic substances. The scope includes all organic compounds including chemical products used for industry and agriculture, as well as various natural substances such as enzymes or even waxes to make candles.

The first thing you should know about organic chemistry is the fundamental principles of organic chemistry.

History of organic chemistry

Organic chemistry was formally developed in 1828, when a PhD student at the University of Wurzburg named Friedrich Wohler said to his professor that he could make urea by reacting ammonium cyanate and silver nitrate.

His professor thought it was impossible but let him try anyway as an experiment; after all, they were just wasting chemicals for nothing more than curiosity. He successfully made urea (thus proving Professor Bunsen wrong).

This discovery led to Nobel Prizes being awarded for research into organic chemistry starting in 1901 through 1931 because this experiment showed how compounds can be synthesized from simpler substances.

Related: Organic compounds-Classification, Definition and examples

Importance of organic chemistry in our lives

Organic chemistry is an incredibly important aspect of our lives. It’s the study of carbon-based molecules that form natural and synthetic substances. Those things, in turn, are what make up all living organisms as well as many nonliving substances we interact with every day – everything from food to clothes to buildings.

I’ll start by discussing medicine because it’s something so many people take for granted but without organic chemists this industry would not exist at all! Medicines come out of compounds found naturally or synthetically created by scientists who have studied them extensively before releasing a new drug to the public.

Chemists, in general, are also responsible for creating many of the products we use on a daily basis – from new types of plastics and solvents to clothing dyes.

Organic chemists have made incredible strides over time and continue to do so today that benefit us all!

Scope of organic chemistry

The scope of organic chemistry is broad, spanning many different fields in the natural sciences and engineering. The following are examples of the various disciplines that rely heavily on principles developed within organic chemists:

  • Pharmacy
  • Biochemistry
  • Materials science
  • Metallurgy

An understanding of organic chemical concepts has also become increasingly important with respect to issues such as pollution control and global warming. All areas of scientific research have been impacted by developments in recent years at the interface between biology, chemistry, physics and mathematics (e.g., molecular computing).

The importance of organic chemistry in research has grown substantially since 1960 with the development of synthetic methods for complex molecules such as polymers and pharmaceuticals.

The discovery that nearly all biological activity is due to specific molecular composition rather than a particular structural conformation (i.e., drug design); – Improved understanding about how natural systems work at the molecular level (due largely to advances in spectroscopy): DNA sequencing, protein crystallography, etc.

Organic chemists and their contributions to society 

The work of organic chemists has been instrumental in many areas, including healthcare and agriculture. In the medical field, for example, they have made significant advances in cancer research by developing new drugs that selectively target diseased cells: often these medications are more effective than traditional treatments with fewer side effects or other complications.

Organic chemists also contribute to society through their involvement in efforts to increase crop production around the world; while pesticides can be helpful tools when used appropriately, there is concern about the possible consequences if pests become resistant to them. Organic chemistry offers an alternative option because it relies on natural processes rather than synthetic chemicals (pesticides) that may leave residues on food crops as well as pose a potential risk to human health and the environment.

Organic chemists are also involved in the production of biodegradable plastics, which offer an alternative to traditional petrochemical-based plastic materials that take centuries to decompose and may pose a risk when they fragment into smaller pieces.

Biodegradable plastics provide many benefits: for example, they use less energy than conventional plastic manufacturing methods and can be composted by municipal recycling programs or deposited directly into agricultural fields where microorganisms break them down rapidly.

Finally, organic chemistry is used extensively in pharmacy because it provides new drug candidates with fewer side effects compared to some pharmaceuticals currently on the market; this has been essential in reducing dependence on narcotic painkillers while providing relief from chronic conditions such as arthritis or cancer.

Related: Sources of organic compounds-coal, plants and animals, natural gas

Examples of different types of reactions that occur in organic chemistry 

In organic chemistry, reactions can be divided into three categories: synthesis, decomposition and single displacement. There are various types of each type in the world of organic chemistry.

You will find that there is a large number of different reaction types involved with the study of chemical kinetics. A limitation on this subject is that it’s impossible to list all possible reactions due to an infinite number or possibilities; however we have tried our best here at The Chembook Blog by providing you with some examples below:

Homolysis Reaction – Occurs when two molecules break apart through their covalent bonds and form new ones; also known as cleavage reaction.

Hydronium Ion Exchange Reaction– Formed when a proton is transferred from one molecule to another and the proton is replaced with a hydronium ion.

Hydrolysis Reaction– Occurs when water breaks down into H+ ions, or protons, and OHions which are also known as hydroxide ions .

Oxidation Reduction Reaction– Happens when oxidation occurs in an organic compound due to a loss of electrons. This reaction type can be broken up into two subtypes: “single electron reduction” (Type I) and “double electron reduction” (Type II). As you may have guessed by their names, they both involve the transfer of either one or two electrons respectively. Type II reactions require oxygen gas whereas Type I does not because it often happens in the presence of a catalyst.

Hydration Reaction– A type of hydrolysis reaction that occurs when water reacts with an organic molecule.

Decomposition Reaction– Occurs during a single displacement reaction where one element is replaced by another. This process can be really complicated due to the many types such as: replacement, decomposition and elimination reactions .

Single Displacement Reactions– The most common form mechanistic pathway for this category is nucleophilic displacement on aromatic compounds which involves an electrophile attacking from behind (in backside attack) or head on (front side attack). In other words, it could also be described as an electron rich center being attacked by electrons deficient centers; depending on whether it’s a backside or front side attack.

Alpha Hydrogen Elimination Reaction– Occurs when a hydrogen atom is removed from an organic molecule in the presence of water from alpha carbon atom. If there’s a group on carbon that has three hydrogens attached to it then single elimination reactions will occur through either head on or backside attacks; whereas beta elimination only occurs via front side attack.

Beta Hydrogen Elimination Reaction– It would break down into two different subtypes just like with alpha eliminations but proton removal happens from beta carbon. During these reactions at inductively electron withdrawing sites which are typically acidic groups such as carboxylic acid groups.

Halogenation Reaction– Occurs when a halide ion is replaced with another such as chlorine chloride and this process can be broken up into two types: single displacement reactions which are typically through nucleophilic attack by water on an organic molecule containing only one halogen group; whereas in the case of substitution reactions it’s not so common to see because they require more complex molecules.

Uses of organic chemistry in everyday life

The uses of organic chemistry in everyday life are very prevalent. Some examples include the manufacturing of plastics, fertilizers, and certain drugs.

Organic Chemistry is commonly used in medicine as well to help with cancer treatments.

There are also many other practical uses of organic chemistry in everyday life, such as the production and use of pesticides. These chemicals can be sprayed on crops to kill off insects that feed on them or they may be used preventatively by farmers after learning about an insect population nearby their crops  to keep those pests from infesting the crop.

Organic Chemistry is also used in the production of fuel for vehicles and other machinery through cracking of petroleum. One example includes the process called pyrolysis, which involves a chemical reaction with organic materials that creates a more usable form of energy.

Organic chemistry is used in everyday life to produce more efficient and cleaner energy. It can also be used as a way to make plastics, fertilizers, drugs, pesticides, or even fuel for vehicles. Organic compounds are present all around us and it’s important that we know the properties of them so we can use those properties responsibly  to help create an easier world in which to live.

There are many practical uses of organic chemistry in everyday life; Some examples include plastic manufacturing,creating certain drugs like antibiotics or chemotherapy treatments, creating fertilizer for crops when needed (which helps plants grow), producing energy through reactions involving pyrolysis with organic materials such as wood chips or waste material from animal slaughtered by humans at factories etc.

In short Organic chemistry is the foundation for all modern life. It’s essential to understand how organic molecules interact with each other so you can make informed decisions about your own health, and that of your children or grandchildren. Join us on a journey through time as we explore what this important field has done for our world in the past and will do in the future. We hope it inspires you to learn more about organic chemistry today!